[52], Due to its seriousness, the Arab-Israeli conflict is the one that most deeply affects the Union for the Mediterranean. By some analysts, the process has been declared ineffective. The invaders who overran the Italian Peninsula had no tradition of strong central government. Twenty-one human rights and humanitarian organizations issued a statement today protesting the Greek government’s move to overturn a binding court ruling which ordered the government to end its abusive policy of trapping asylum seekers on Greece’s islands. EU-Southern Mediterranean relations at bilateral level are managed mainly through the Euro-Mediterranean Association Agreements. "[22], The Paris summit was considered a diplomatic success for Nicolas Sarzoky. So societies had time to develop complex institutions such as government. [6] The Arab League also participates in UfM meetings.[7][8]. The economic basket can be considered a success, and there have been more projects for the exchange on a cultural level and between the peoples in the riparian states. After World War II, Italy became a republic but has had dozens of governments since then. Its headquarters were established in Barcelona. Then Athens fought a ruinous war with Sparta, a rival Greek city-state. The two halves of the Roman Empire also developed different forms of Christianity. The Partnership culminated in a series of attempts by European countries to articulate their relations with their North African and Middle Eastern neighbours: the global Mediterranean policy (1972–1992) and the renovated Mediterranean policy (1992–1995).[10]. The government’s move raises significant concerns about its challenge to rule of law. All three factors — … The government tried to promote growth in the south but made bad choices. [4] The renewal of the co-presidency was supposed to happen on the second Union for the Mediterranean Summit. The Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, also known as the Barcelona Process, was created in 1995 as a result of the Conference of Euro-Mediterranean Ministers of Foreign Affairs held in Barcelona on 27 and 28 November under the Spanish presidency of the EU. Employment and Labour - September 2016, Dead Sea (Jordan). This program has been active since 1998, and has been involved in programs to identify the cultural heritages of Mediterranean states, promote their preservation, and educate the peoples of partner countries about their cultural heritages.[16]. The adoption of projects on the ground follows the principle of "variable geometry", providing a degree of flexibility by which a smaller number of countries may decide, with the approval of all, to cooperate and participate in projects of common interest. They were reunited in 1990 when the Iron Curtain and the Berlin Wall came down. [58], After the initial postponement, both France and Spain announced their intentions to hold peace talks between Israel and the Palestinian Authority as part of the postponed summit under the auspices of the US. Two geographic advantages helped the Mediterranean to become the region where European civilization was born. Some experts believe the fall of the Roman Empire was necessary to dismantle the old Roman slave system in favor of equitable societies. In ancient Europe, most roads did indeed lead to Rome, enabling that city to control a vast region. Urban growth has created housing shortages, pollution, and traffic jams. The ARLEM's co-presidency is held by the President of the EU Committee of the Regions, Luc Van den Brande, and the Moroccan mayor of Al Hoceima, Mohammed Boudra. The four largest countries in the Mediterranean basin—Egypt, Turkey, France, and Italy—comprise over half the region’s population and define the rules of the Mediterranean’s great game. it was separated into city-states. Service industries, such as banking, also make up a much larger part of the economy than before. Local communities have expectations from cultural projects that influence the challenges within each country and their European … It became a member of NATO in 1952 and joined the European Economic Community in 1981. Mediterranean Europe saw political turmoil in the 20th century. This made it possible to use iron in a range of artefacts for which bronze was too expensive, for example nails for building, and iron or iron-tipped tools for agriculture. On the one hand, the European Community was undergoing important changes due to the reunification of Germany after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the beginning of the adhesion negotiations of Eastern and Central European countries. In 1096, European Christians launched the Crusades, a series of wars to take Palestine from the Muslims. The Barcelona Process comprises three "baskets", in EU jargon, or strands: The Euro-Mediterranean free trade area (EU-MEFTA) is based on the Barcelona Process and European Neighbourhood Policy. [97], On 10 April 2017, the Heads of State or Government of Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain convened in Madrid at the 3rd Summit of Southern European Union Countries, where they reaffirmed their support to the Union for the Mediterranean and stressed its "central role in the consolidation of Euro-Mediterranean regional cooperation, as an expression of co-ownership in the management of our common regional agenda in order to effectively and collectively address our current challenges". These projects are expected to have an important socio-economic impact across the region, including on climate action, renewable energy, transport, urban development, water, the blue economy and environment. Cyprus is one of just two nations and the first in the world to include its map on its flag (the second … Beginning about 2000 B.C., people from the north moved onto the Balkan Peninsula. Environment and climate change – May 2014, Athens (Greece). A summit of heads of state and government is intended to be held every two years to foster political dialogue at the highest level. It is also very capricious with sudden heavy rain or bouts of high winds such as the Sirocco and Mistral. A HUMAN PERSPECTIVE Have you ever heard the saying, “All roads lead to Rome”? Ministers took stock of the implementation of the UfM Roadmap endorsed a year ago and committed to amplifying the impetus given to the Euro-Mediterranean partnership. Europe is the second smallest of the seven continents covering roughly 2% of the earth’s surface. Photograph: Zohra Bensemra/Reuters. The third Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) Regional Forum was held in Barcelona on 8 October 2018 under the title '10 years: Building together the future of regional cooperation'. Trade, 9 December 2009, Brussels (Belgium). The institution, through its course of actions, focuses on two main pillars: fostering human development and promoting sustainable development. The question of an enhanced co-ownership of the process has repeatedly been brought up over the last years. Beginning in 336 B.C., the Macedonian general Alexander the Great conquered Persia and part of India. [22], With the purpose of guaranteeing the co-ownership of the Union for the Mediterranean, the Heads of State and Government decided in Paris that two countries, one from the EU and one from the Mediterranean partner countries, will jointly preside the Union for the Mediterranean. The Secretary General is elected by consensus from a non-EU country. The four largest countries in the Mediterranean basin—Egypt, Turkey, France, and Italy—comprise over half the region’s population and define the rules of the Mediterranean’s great game. Since then, France had been signing agreements with the different rotator presidencies of the EU (the Czech Republic, Sweden and Spain) in order to maintain the co-presidency for alongside Egypt. "[60], Nevertheless, at the beginning of November 2010 the peace talks stalled, and the Egyptian co-presidents conditioned the occurrence of the summit on a gesture from Israel that would allow the negotiations to resume. [114], On Women empowerment, it had also labeled 10 projects benefiting over 50,000 women in the Euro-Mediterranean region, this with the participation of over 1000 shareholders and with a budget of over 127 million euros.[115]. Florence has glorious works of Renaissance art. After World War II, Italy became a republic but has had dozens of governments since then. This Roadmap focuses on the following four areas of action: On 22 February 2017, the Secretariat of the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM) and the Swedish International Development Agency (Sida) signed a €6.5 million multi annual financial agreement to support UfM activities in favour of a more sustainable and inclusive development in the region. It started industries that did not benefit the local people. To aid communication and make it possible for the army to march quickly to distant locations, Rome built a large network of well-paved roads. [23] Given these circumstances, even politicians that had been engaged with the Barcelona Process since its very beginnings, like the Spanish politician Josep Borrell, expressed their disappointment about the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership and its incapacity to deliver results. A secretariat with a separate legal status and its own statutes was created. Alternative energies: Mediterranean Solar Plan (€5 million). In other ways, the economy has been changing rapidly since World War II. Despite the development of the agricultural sector depending on many factors and regional variations in the sector, some key trends at the European level can be observed. Maritime and land highways (€7.5 million). It was presented as a new phase Euro-Mediterranean Partnership with new members and an improved institutional architecture which aimed to "enhance multilateral relations, increase co-ownership of the process, set governance on the basis of equal footing and translate it into concrete projects, more visible to citizens. For example, Italy's northern region is much more developed than its southern half. There is no one government above all the others. Economic-Financial Meeting, 7 July 2009, Brussels (Belgium). De-pollution of the Mediterranean (€22 million). [128], A major reason for the lack of success is that the EU was torn between "values" and "interests": Had the EU stayed true to its values it would have had to press for democratic reform, but if interests were priorities the EU would have to stay on friendly terms with autocratic regimes. The main added value of the UfM lies in the interrelation created between the policy dimension and its operational translation into concrete projects on the ground, which in return nourishes the definition of relevant policies through a multi-stakeholder approach. Europe has long been wanting to cut its reliance on Russian gas, and the energy-hungry trading bloc would be an ideal market for eastern Mediterranean … On the other, the Arab–Israeli conflict appeared to be getting closer to achieving peace after the Madrid Conference (1991) and the Oslo Accords (1992). Digital Economy – September 2014, Brussels (Belgium). The work to achieve this goal is carried out in conjunction with other organisations and regional cooperation forums (The Arab League, the Arab Maghreb Union) and alongside sub-regional cooperation fora such as the 5+5 Dialogue with which the UfM is actively associated. [30], The Mediterranean Union was enthusiastically supported by Egypt and Israel. Ancient Greece left a lasting legacy to modern civilization. For a region that takes its name from the sea it surrounds, the Mediterranean is surprisingly hilly. In May 2016, the Parliamentary Assembly of the UfM recognized, in the final declaration of its 12th Plenary Session, the "importance of the pivotal role played by the UfM in promoting cooperation and regional integration in the Mediterranean […]". Roman Catholicism is strong in Italy, Spain, and Portugal. After World War II, Italy became a republic but has had dozens of governments since then. The European Union Ambassador to Morocco, Eneko Landaburu, stated in September 2010 that he does "not believe" in the Union for the Mediterranean. Greece has also experienced political instability. [61] The two co-presidencies and Spain decided on 15 November to postpone the summit sine die, alleging that the stagnation of the Middle East Peace Process would hinder a "satisfactory participation."[62]. It also gives them access to funding opportunities through the network of financial partners of the UfM. The growing naval prowess of the European powers confronted further rapid Ottoman expansion in the region when the Battle of Lepanto checked the power of the Ottoman navy. As well, Khader states that the Gulf War of 1991, the Algerian crisis (from 1992 onwards) and the rise of Islamic fundamentalism throughout the Arab world are also important factors in Europe's new relations with the Mediterranean countries based on security concerns. I am from the Maghreb; I am from the Mediterranean. The fact that the Union for the Mediterranean is launched as a new phase of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership means that the Union accepts and commits to maintain the acquis of Barcelona, the purpose of which is to promote "peace, stability and prosperity" throughout the region (Barcelona, 2). Second, the nearby Mediterranean Sea encouraged overseas trade. Photograph: Zohra Bensemra/Reuters. On 20 March 2018, the European Commission and the Government of Palestine, in partnership with the Union for the Mediterranean, hosted an international donor Pledging Conference to consolidate financial support to the construction of a large-scale desalination plant and its associated water supply infrastructure in the Gaza Strip. According to the ISN, "Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas and Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan were the only leaders from the Mediterranean countries to attend, while those of Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, and Egypt were not present. [21] both of which are still valid under the Union for the Mediterranean. Industry, 5–6 November 2008, Nice (France). Sustainable Economic Development and Reform. There is no main government in Europe. Budget and prospects of the Barcelona Process ten … Industrial cooperation – February 2014, Brussels (Belgium). They highlighted the crucial role of the Union for the Mediterranean to that effect, welcoming the work of the UfM Secretariat to help facilitate progress in regional cooperation and integration, including by promoting region-wide projects. This region shows many signs of its past civilizations. The EMPA gathers parliamentarians from the Euro-Mediterranean countries and has four permanent committees on the following issues:[137], The EMPA also has an ad hoc committee on Energy and Environment. [140], At the Paris Summit it was agreed that the Anna Lindh Foundation, along with the UN Alliance of Civilizations will be in charge of the cultural dimension of the Union for the Mediterranean.[22]. Blue Economy – November 2015, Brussels (Belgium). [35] When Slovenia took the EU presidency at the beginning of 2008, the then Slovenian Prime Minister Janez Janša added to the criticism by saying: "We do not need a duplication of institutions, or institutions that would compete with EU, institutions that would cover part of the EU and part of the neighbourhood. "[36], Other criticisms of the proposal included concern about the relationship between the proposed UfM and the existing Euromediterranean Partnership (Barcelona Process), which might reduce the effectiveness of EU policies in the region and allow the southern countries to play on the rivalries to escape unpopular EU policies. [24], However, many European Union diplomats have defended the validity of the Barcelona Process' framework by arguing that the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership was the only forum that gathered Israelis and Arabs on equal footing[26]), and identifying as successes the Association Agreements, the Code of Conduct on Countering Terrorism and the establishment of the Anna Lindh Foundation for the Dialogue between Cultures. The 27 agreed that the EU co-presidency had to "be compatible with the external representation of the European Union in accordance with the Treaty provisions in force. It is the number one tourism destination in the world. Athenian democracy helped inspire the U.S. system of government. It was inspired by classical art and writings. Political Affairs, Security and Human Rights, Economic, Financial and Social Affairs and Education, Promotion of the Quality of Life, Human Exchanges and Culture, Women's Rights in the Euro-Mediterranean Countries, CIHEAM (International Center for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies) – 8 January 2015, EESC (European Economic and Social Committee) – 13 January 2015, Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness – 26 January 2015, AFAEMME (Association of Organisations of Mediterranean Businesswomen) – 11 February 2015, Agency for International Cooperation and Local Development in the Mediterranean – 16 February 2015, British University in Egypt – 14 March 2015, EMUNI University (Euro-Mediterranean University) – 8 April 2015, IRU (International Road Transport Union) – 10 April 2015, IPEMED (Institut de Prospective économique du monde Méditerranéen) – 4 May 2015, BSEC (Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation) – 18 June 2015, CETMO (Center for Transportation Studies for the Western Mediterranean) – 26 November 2015, Energy Charter Secretariat – 26 November 2015, International Energy Agency – 17 February 2016, Service de la Coopération Marocaine – 8 March 2016, Conseil de la Région Tangier-Tétouan-Al Hoceima – 22 June 2016, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Spain – 29 July 2016, ANIMA Investment Network – 7 September 2016, Groupe interacadémique pour le développement – 29 September 2016, IEMed (European Institute of the Mediterranean) – 20 January 2017, SIDA (Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency) – 23 January 2017, UN Office for South-South Cooperation – 24 January 2017, Fundación Mujeres por Africa – 24 January 2017, MENBO Permanent Secretariat – 10 March 2017, World Alliance for Efficient Solutions – 24 May 2017, Institut Méditerranéen de l’Eau – 8 June 2017, Euro-Mediterranean University of Fes – 20 June 2017, UNFCCC Secretariat, Organization of the 2017 Forum of the Standing Committee on Finance, 3 August 2017, ACUP, International Conference on Sustainable Development Goals, 15 September 2017, World Tourism Organization, Institutional cooperation – IO, 1 October 2017, Federal Ministry of Economy – Germany, Institutional cooperation, 5 October 2017, Eastern Mediterranean International School, YOCOPAS Conference, 11 October 2017, Arab League, Institutional cooperation – IO, 17 October 2017, Union Internationale Des Transports Publics, Institutional cooperation, 9 November 2017, AViTeM – Villa Méditerranée, Institutional cooperation, 21 November 2017, General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean of the FAO, Institutional cooperation – IO, 30 November 2017, Fédération de l'Energie du Maroc, Institutional cooperation, 19 December 2017, Le Plan Bleu, Joint Editing and publication of a report regarding the environmental changes in the Mediterranean, 22 December 2017.

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