A note on cheetal, Axis axis (Erxleban) damage to nursery stock, at Satyanarayan forest nursery, Dehra Dun (U.P.). by Vozzo JA]. 1997 "The Potential for Tropical Agroforestry in Wood and Animal Feed Production". http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list. (col.); 146 ref. Impact of multipurpose tree species on nutrient status of black soil. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Overview Information Albizia is an herb that was originally grown in southern and eastern Asia. Ravenelia) can cause damage (Sharma and Bhardwaj, 1988; Gupta, 1993; Lenné and Boa, 1994). Corners Of Road Construction In Progress. Several species are grown as Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); seedpods on tree. St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/fm, Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2016. This species is often found in old pastures and its leaves are used as fodder and its limbs for fuel wood. It is also used a source of forage and fodder in agroforestry and silvopastoral systems. 17 (1), 149-163. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3/fulltext.html DOI:10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3, USDA-ARS, 2016. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. June 2017. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/search.html?zoom_query=, Wheeler JR, Rye BL, Koch BL, Wilson AJG, 1992. Site suitability and tolerance limits of trees, shrubs and grasses on sodic soils of Ganga-Yamuna Doab. Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FOPWFO. Early nitrogen fixation and utilization in Albizia lebbeck, Leucaena leucocephala, and Gliricidia sepium using nitrogen (, http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/IAS-present-in-SLU-May-2012-revision.pdf, http://www.irf.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/NevisPeakProtectedAreaTerrestrialBiodiversity_2009.pdf, http://www.the-eis.com/data/literature/Invasive%20alien%20species%20in%20southern%20Africa.pdf, http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/, http://s3.amazonaws.com/tneppc2/uploads/619/original/tn-eppc-plant-list-ww-w09-final-1.pdf, http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/plant-directory/albizia-lebbeck/, http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl, http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/search.html?zoom_query=, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Being one of the most widespread and common species of Albizia worldwide, it is often simply called siris, though this name may refer to any locally common member of the genus. When the Suez Canal was opened in 1869, A. lebbeck trees were planted on a 5-mile avenue from the Nile to the Great Pyramids; the famous botanist Dr. David Fairchild, who admired the trees, sent seeds to the US Department of Agriculture in Washington DC and the species was subsequently adopted as a street tree in places such as southern Florida (Morton, 1983). The value of A. lebbeck is critically dependent upon resistance to insect attack and this should be the first objective of developmental work on the species (`t Mannetje and Jones, 1992). Proceedings of the IUFRO Workshop-Pests and Diseases of Forest Plantations. A handbook for their identification. 2010, http://www.best.bs/Invasive_plant_species.htm, http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/index.html, http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html, http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/C185-11%20Invasive%20plants%20Dutch%20Caribbean.pdf, https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf, https://profiles.ala.org.au/opus/foa/profile/Albizia%20lebbeck, http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropSearchForm, http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, http://www.iabin-us.org/projects/i3n/i3n_documents/catalog_dominicanrep.html, http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list, Kadiata BD, Mulongoy K, 1995. The timber can be used for furniture, panelling, flooring, turnery and light construction. http://www.irf.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/NevisPeakProtectedAreaTerrestrialBiodiversity_2009.pdf. Forest pathology: principles and practice in forestry. on degraded lands. Germination is epigeal, and generally occurs between 4 to 20 days after sowing, with peak germination at 12 to 18 days (Parrotta, 1988). stem heartwood of Albizia lebbeck benth (A) T.S showing large vessels surrounded by wood parenchyma, wood fibers and three biseriate medullary rays, Wood parenchyma and a (B) biseriate medullary rays, (C) Medullary rays and vessel filled with redish brown content, (D) Prismatic crystals along with crystal fibers (E) 1962. In: The PLANTS Database. June 2017. Cape Town, South Africa: Paarl Printers, Hocking D, ed. Albizia lebbeck (species description). It is cultivated as a shade tree in North and South America. The species is commonly grown as a shade tree in coffee and tea gardens and along avenues (Everist, 1969). Vegetation and Flora of Proposed Nevis Peak Protected Areas. Rome, Italy: Land and Water Development Division, Food and Agricultural Organization of the UN.http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/cropSearchForm, Everist SL, 1969. Bolivia Catalogue. 3: 17-30, Misra KK, Jaiswal HR, 1995. [Many refs. St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.https://www.tropicos.org/Project/BC, Booth TH, Jovanovic T, 2000. Further studies in the mechanism of the anti-anaphylactic action of Albizia lebbeck an Indian indigenous drug. Each mature tree produces large amounts of seeds that are mainly dispersed by wind. Occurrence of virus disease on Albizia lebbeck. Lowry et al. Even where it is not native, some indigenous herbivores are liable to utilize lebbeck as a food resource. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 96, 173-178. Midway Mall Town Sand Island, Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962; Tripathi et al., 1979; Ganguli and Bhatt, 1993). As a nitrogen fixing species, A. lebbeck has the potential to change soil nitrogen levels with negative impacts on nutrient balances and cycling in invaded areas. The effect of pre-treatment of seeds of some arid zone tree species on their germination responses. Occurrence of an unnamed virus disease on nursery plants of A. lebbeck has been reported by Chowdhery et al. Tropicos database. You guessed it: green. http://www.tropicalforages.info/. Australian tropical rain forest trees. In: Caribbean Alien Invasive Species Network (CIASNET), 12 pp. The plants are widely used for fodder and timber, and many are important in traditional medicine. Above-ground and below-ground biomass allocation in important fuelwood trees from arid north-western India. 6 (Special Issue No. Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); habit, with flowers, leaves, and fruits. The species can tolerate a wide range of climates and soil types. Launiupoko, Maui, Hawaii, USA. Green leaves, fallen flowers and dry leaves are palatable. https://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/app/uploads/2017/04/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf, Clark WC, Thaman RR, eds, 1993. http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/albleb.html, Cameron DM, Jermyn D, 1991. Review of plantation performance of high value rainforest species. Curepe, Trinidad and Tobago: CAB International.132 pp. by Witt A, Luke Q]. An extensive literature on the trialling of A. lebbeck for land reclamation after mining and revegetation of fly-ash dumps indicates that there are alternative, better adapted species available for this purpose.Keating and Bolza (1982) describe the characteristics and uses of siris (A. lebbeck) wood. The trees of Florida: a reference and field guide, Sarasota, Florida, USA: Pineapple Press Inc. Nielsen I, 1985. The genus Albizia was named after Filippo del Albizzi, a Florentine nobleman who in 1749 introduced A. julibrissin into cultivation. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. Weeds of Australia, Biosecurity Queensland Edition. > 0°C, dry winters), Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year, Warm average temp. Influence of soil working techniques on early growth of trees in arid region. Vol IV. Forage research in Thailand. Listado de expertos y especies invasivas de Dominican Republic. Under suitable environmental conditions, A. lebbeck forms dense thickets that outcompete native plant species by inhibiting the germination and establishment of seedlings, with a consequent reduction in native species diversity (PIER, 2016). English names for it include lebbeck, lebbek tree, flea tree, frywood, koko and woman's tongue tree. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia.1124 pp. The most important disease of A. lebbeck is vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Notes: Albizia stands as one of the few genera with a wide distribution spanning different continents where the heartwood of all species consistently fluoresces under blacklight. Indian Timber Information Series No. Agroforestree database: a tree species reference and selection guide version 4.0. Albizia lebbeck. In Brazil, the herbicide triclopyr has been recommended to control areas invaded by A. lebbeck (I3N-Brasil, 2016). Lowry J B, Prinsen J H, Burrows D M, 1994. Albizia lebbeck (Indian siris); fruiting habit. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Online Database. Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii, USA. > 10°C, Cold average temp. In: Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96, Padma V, Satyanarayana G, Reddy BM, 1994. Virus and viruslike disorders of forest trees. Similarly , 'vaagai' means 'victory' in Tamil. Across the Caribbean islands monospecific thickets of A. lebbeck are degrading the native flora of Caribbean dry forests, one of the most threatened ecosystems in the world (Murphy and Lugo, 1986). (1992). Seed Research, 22(1):54-57; 9 ref, Pal BC, Achari B, Yoshikawa K, Arihara S, 1995. A. lebbeck spreads by seed. by tissue culture. Flowers in the spring through summer, becoming covered in bright yellow bristle looking flowers that resemble the tip of a paintbrush and have the Langeland KA, Craddock Burks K, 1998. Its uses include environmental management, forage, medicine and wood. Wageningen, Netherlands; Pudoc/PROSEA. It has naturalized or become invasive in a number of locations and its future introduction to other sites has the potential to increase the number of locations where it is invasive. No. Wageningen, Netherland: Plant Research International, 82 pp. Forest pathology: principles and practice in forestry. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Western Australian Herbarium, Perth: Department of Conservation and Land Management, 1327 p, Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Impact of tree coppicing on tree-crop competition in parkland and alley farming systems in semiarid Burkina Faso. Wood from Albizia lebbeck has a density of 0.55-0.66 g/cm or higher. Influence of host species in the initial growth and development of sandal (Santalum album Linn.). Forest nursery diseases and their management. 109-Year-Old Veteran and His Secrets to Life Will Make You Smile | Short Film Showcase - Duration: 12:39. United States Node of the Inter-American Biodiversity Information Net (IABIN). Defoliation by Endothella albizae has been recorded in Africa, the Philippines and Pakistan (Gibson, 1975). Identification and biology of non-native plants in Florida's natural areas, Florida, USA: University of Florida. New Delhi India, 400 pp, Bandara PDMGD, 1987. The sapwood is pale yellow and distinct and the heartwood dark walnut streaked with darker bands. , 2012. 98. Comparative growth of eight tree species. Individual trees exhibit considerable variation and may be more susceptible under water stress. Outside of Australia, it grows well on fertile, well-drained loamy soils but poorly on heavy cracking clays, and can tolerate moderately alkaline, saline and sodic (pH<9, ESP<35, ECe<4 dS/m) and lateric soils (Tomar and Yadav, 1982; Hocking, 1993; MacDicken, 1994; Singh, 1994; Parrotta, 2010; PIER, 2016). Woman's tongue, or cha-cha (Albizia lebbeck Benth. Murphy PG, Lugo AE, 1986. A. lebbeck grows at elevations from sea level to 1500 m in a variety of climatic zones where annual rainfall ranges from 600 mm to 2500 mm, yet it will survive in areas with low and irregular rainfall receiving only 300 mm annually (`t Mannetje and Jones, 1992; Hocking, 1993; Lowry et al., 1994). by Macdonald IAW, Reaser JK, Bright C, Neville LE, Howard GW, Murphy SJ, Preston G]. Department of Primary Industries, Indooroopilly, Queensland, Faria MP de, Siqueira JO, Vale FR do, Curi N, 1995. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/CV, Weeds of Australia, 2016. St Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden.http://www.tropicos.org/. Performance of different tree species on eroded soils of northern dry zone of Karnataka. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. Germination of freshly extracted seeds in Puerto Rico was 60 to 90 percent; after 1 year of cold storage at 5 to 10°C, percentage germination dropped to 12 percent (Parrotta, 1988). Little EL, Wadsworth FH, 1964. Lowry JB, 1989. Notes: Albizia stands as one of the few genera with a wide distribution spanning different continents where the heartwood of all species consistently fluoresces under blacklight. In addition, the specific epithet is occasionally misspelled lebbek.[10]. , 1993. The pods are pale straw to light brown at maturity, narrow-oblong 12-35 x 3-6 cm, papery-leathery, swollen over the seeds and not constricted between them, indehiscent and borne in large numbers. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Report to the Nature Conservancy. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 10: 51-54; 8 ref, Missouri Botanical Garden, 2016. Indian Forester, 120(3):225-235, Sosef MSM, Hong LT, Prawirohatmodjo S, eds, 1998. In Sudan, it flowers March-May and fruits May-August. Nasroun TH, Al Mana FA, 1992. Early growth and yield of Albizia lebbeck at a coastal site in Puerto Rico. A taxonomic study of Albizia (Leguminosae: Mimosoideae: Ingeae) in Mexico and Central America Anales del Jardin Botanico de Madrid 65: 255-305. The gray, cork-like bark is fissured and somewhat flaky. In: Invasive species threats in the Caribbean region. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 23(7-8):843-848; 26 ref, Meena JN, Gupta GN, Ram T, 1995. Barbados: University of the West Indies.http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html, Browne FG, 1968. (Benth.) http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/IAS-present-in-SLU-May-2012-revision.pdf, Kumar N, Toky OP, 1994. Anon, 1970. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. [1], It is a tree growing to a height of 18–30 m tall with a trunk 50 cm to 1 m in diameter. Leguminosae. Wood used for light construction, posts, flooring, wall paneling, containers, woodware, carving, turnery, furniture, and veneers. It is widespread in the USA and reported from Argentina and Puerto Rico (Gibson, 1975). Tropical Forages: an interactive selection tool., Brisbane, Australia: CSIRO, DPI&F, CIAT, ILRI. and Canarium australianum. In India, it is found in areas which experience temperatures up to 49°C, but it is also found in areas which experience frost, with an absolute minimum temperature of -5°C (Hocking, 1993). This species is thought to occur naturally in coastal forests, monsoonal vine thickets, savannah woodlands and riparian areas in some parts of northern Australia, though it may be a relatively recent introduction to these regions. It has bipinnate leaves that are usually 7.5 - 15 cm long, with one to four pairs of pinnae and each pinna with 6 - 18 leaflets. Benth. In the dry, deciduous scrub forests of southern India, it is often found with Santalum album, other Albizia species, and members of the genera Acacia, Ziziphus, Cassia and Terminalia. A common spot disease, Colletotrichum lebbeck has been widely recorded on pods and leaves of A. lebbeck in Pakistan, the Philippines and Jamaica (Gibson, 1975). Although it is native to Australia, it is spreading southward and becoming more common in southeast Queensland where it is now regarded as an environmental weed by some local authorities. Invasive plant species in Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. For example, in Puerto Rico, it appears on a government invasive species list and is a category 2 invasive species in the Bahamas. http://www.rngr.net/publications/ttsm, PIER, 2016. The flowers and stem bark are used to make medicine. [ed. Psyllids attack Albizia lebbeck (Linn.) In Australia, establishment can be adversely affected by grazing of young plants by mice, rabbits and other wildlife (`t Mannetje and Jones, 1992). New Delhi, India: Oxford and IBH. USA: Tennessee Exotic Pest Plant Council.http://s3.amazonaws.com/tneppc2/uploads/619/original/tn-eppc-plant-list-ww-w09-final-1.pdf, Toky OP, Bisht RP, 1993. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. In: Hitacharen C, MacDicken KG, Ivory MH, Nair KSS, eds. The foliage is highly digestibility early in the season, or in regrowth after cutting, and when mature it is of moderate digestibility, although it is still more digestible than mature grass. ; [refs], EcoCrop, 2016. National database of exotic invasive species. Albizia lebbek III-4 2 Enzyklopädie der Holzgewächse – 43.

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