Then he ordered his legionaries to charge. 1776-1783 Marlborough's Wars 1701-1714 The Jacobite Rebellion 1745 Caesar sent in his yet uncommitted third line to reinforce the fatigued troops, and Pompey’s remaining soldiers fled the field. Enough of the Gallic horsemen escaped, however, to ride for help. Curio's disaster in Africa. During one deployment, heavy rains rendered the … Alea iacta est... 49 B.C. The charging cavalry, meeting this unexpected and terrifying menace, pulled up short and then panicked. The differences in manuscripts can include. Caesar’s civil war would continue even after Pharsalus but that was the turning point. The fighting began when another Gallic tribe, the Carnutes, slaughtered a group of Romans who had settled in what they considered their territory. For the past several days, Pompey had brought his more numerous troops to the field, and Caesar had formed his smaller army against them. He then built a bridge over the river and pursued the main Helvetii force for two weeks until a lack of supplies caused him to end the chase. The Great Roman Civil War (49–45 BC), also known as Caesar's Civil War, was one of the last politico-military conflicts in the Roman Republic before the establishment of the Roman Empire. Finally, however, on August 9 Pompey and his army seemed ready to fight – and with a glance Caesar realized what his enemy was planning. Gaius Julius Caesar (July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a military commander, politician and author at the end of the Roman Republic.. Caesar became a member of the First Triumvirate, and when that broke up, he fought a civil war against Pompey the Great. In 55 B.C., Caesar repelled an incursion into Gaul by two Germanic tribes, and followed that by building a bridge across the Rhine. Soon, many of the warriors found themselves all but helpless to lift their now heavily laden shields. The second wall, designed to protect the Roman besiegers from attacks from outside the city, was the same as the first in design but included four cavalry camps. The battle turned into a desperate fight for survival that continued into the twilight hours. > From Caesar to Augustus (c. 49 BC–AD 14) From Caesar to Augustus (c. 49 BC–AD 14) Using Coins as Sources ... allowing students to quickly identify material relevant to Julius Caesar, the second triumvirate, the relationship between… < Read less Read more > Contents. The roots of this conflict reached back to 50 B.C., when the Roman Senate, feeling threatened by Caesar’s popularity with the Roman people in the wake of his Gallic conquests, ordered Caesar to disband his army in Gaul and return to Rome to face prosecution for several claimed offenses. Led by Pompey and his optimates (conservative supporters), the Senate fled Rome, first to Brundisium in southern Italy and then across the Adriatic Sea to Rome’s Greek provinces. Caesar’s army was almost out of supplies and had no clear line of retreat, while Pompey’s soldiers held the high ground, were far more numerous and better supplied. This a parallel presentation of the works of Julius Caesar in Latin and English translation. Book 1--- 50 B.C. with a much larger force that successfully defeated the powerful Catuvellauni, whom he forced to pay tribute to Rome. He changed the Roman republic into a monarchy and laid the foundations of a … Facing starvation and plummeting morale inside Alesia, Vercingetorix was forced to surrender. The best account is provided by Caesar's War Commentaries in three books covering 49-48, supplemented by separate accounts of the Alexandrian War, African War and Spanish War written by his continuators. Instead, Caesar marched from Gaul with the XIII Legion. On the Alesia side of this rampart, two 15-foot-wide ditches were dug, with the one nearest the fortification filled with water from surrounding rivers. Instead, we have a slew of medieval manuscripts, copied and edited by scribes over the centuries, and now stored in archives across the world. Caesar’s men then focused on Pompey’s camp. The Senate and the People have two options: on the one hand is the overweening ego, ambition, but limited military vision of Gnaeus Pompeius Magno - Pompey the Great. Caught on the wrong side of the mountains from Vercingetorix when winter hit, Caesar crossed the “impassable” Massif Central with a small force of infantry and cavalry to link up with two of his legions quartered near the southern edge of Arvenni territory. HistoryNet.com is brought to you by Historynet LLC, the world's largest publisher of history magazines. He later went to Egypt, where he became involved in the Egyptian civil war and installed Cleopatra on Egypt’s throne. In January 49 B.C., he led his legion across the shallow Rubicon River and entered Italy – a virtual declaration of war against the Roman Republic. at Dyrrhachium (in modern-day Albania). From 82 to 80 B.C., Lucius Cornelius Sulla made himself dictator of Rome and purged the city of his political enemies. Caesar then hurried to Cisalpine Gaul, where he took command of three legions and enrolled two new ones, the XI and XII. Even without the authority of Suetonius, the diction itself would be sufficient to convince the most skeptical that Caesar and no other was the author. Book 7--- 52 B.C. Similar Posts: The Pompeian cavalry quickly overwhelmed the outnumbered Caesarian horse but then ran into Caesar’s favorite legion, the X, which Caesar had purposely stationed at the end of the line to meet the enemy cavalry. Vercingetorix was taken to Rome, where he was held for six years before being put on display during Caesar’s 46 B.C. CAESAR'S COMMENTARIES of THE CIVIL WAR. He gave them grain to eat and seed to begin a crop, but he insisted on hostages to insure their obedience. In this effort, she sought to determine the source of more than 200 copies.1. Below you can see how Brown’s stemma varied from 2 previous attempts at tracing the transmission of Caesar’s Civil War.2 These stemmas simplify a tedious and laborious effort, but they all have the goal of getting to a single source. Winning the war, Caesar became Roman dictator for life. Caesar’s father, also named Gaius Julius Caesar, had served Rome as the city’s praetor (military or civilian commander) and as proconsul (governor) to Asia, while his mother, Aurelia Cotta, came from an influential Roman family. Richard Wayne Penniman [Little Richard], singer, musician; important influence on rock 'n' roll. This allowed Caesar’s soldiers to have, as one historian wrote, “the impetus of the charge inspire them with courage.” Caesar’s men threw their pila, pulled their gladii and crashed into the Pompeian shield wall. Armed mobs rule the streets. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Caesar responded by thinning the traditional Roman three-line infantry formation and creating a fourth line hidden behind the other three. He led a show of force into Germanic territory before returning across the Rhine and dismantling the bridge. In a quick reversal, the fleeing Helvetii suddenly turned and began to pursue the Romans, harassing their rear guard. Caesar’s fate – and that of the Roman Republic – hung in the balance as the Battle of Pharsalus began in earnest. Chapter 1 While these things were going forward in Spain, Caius Trebonius, Caesar's lieutenant, who had been left to conduct the assault of Massilia, began to raise a mound, vineae, and turrets against the town, on two sides; one of which was next the harbor and docks, the other on that part where there is a passage from Gaul and Spain to that sea which forces itself up the mouth of the Rhone. The city’s garrison was taken prisoner, as were the survivors of the relief army. For most of the next decade, Caesar worked to pacify the unruly Gallic tribes and make Gaul a Roman province. At the time, Roman legions were noted for their tactical flexibility, disciplined fighting, ability to adapt to changing circumstances and superb organization; but “what ultimately made the Romans unbeatable,” one historian wrote, was “the Roman genius for fighting as a unit.” To this proven mix, Caesar added his charisma, daring and ability to inspire. The latter were freed to secure their tribes’ alliance with Rome. The First Triumvirate - overseers of the last days of the Roman Republic - has disintegrated. This is the continuation of the mini series about “Caesar’s civil War”. in the making, depending on how you look at it. The Civil Wars By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. A Fresh Translation of Caesar’s Civil War, 8 Books for the Military History Undergrad, Studies on the Text of Caesar's Bellum civile, Gettysburg After Action Report – September 10, 2017, The Hannibal History Channel Doesn’t Want You to Know, Bodies Piling up at the Battle of the Bagradas (49 BC), Book Review: Hannibal: A Hellenistic Life, Misspellings, including inversions of letters, missing letters, repetition, Errors from abbreviations, which were outmoded or simply different, Method of dividing books, such as using headers, numbers, or a giant letter, Diving the text, such as 14 books instead of 3, “Improvements,” corrections by multiple hands on the same manuscript, Virginia Brown, “Caesar, Gaius Julius” in. But at Gergovia, Vercingetorix defeated Caesar, inflicting heavy losses including 46 veteran centurions (commanders of an 80-100 man unit in a Roman legion). “There was such a passion among the Gauls for liberty,” Caesar wrote, “that [nothing] could hold them back from throwing themselves with all their heart and soul into the fight for freedom.”. Inside Alesia, Vercingetorix gave his men a day’s rest before again throwing their might against the Roman wall with scaling ladders and grappling hooks. Alesia marked the end of organized resistance to Rome in Gaul, which became a Roman province. Turning to aid the Roman-allied tribes, Caesar met the Helvetii as they were crossing the River Arar (modern-day Saône River, in eastern France). Then in 57 B.C., he marched with eight legions, archers and cavalry against the Belgae (who occupied an area roughly comprising modern-day Belgium) after they attacked a tribe allied with Rome. Even Pompey became jealous and soon Caesar and Pompey became rivals. Sharpened stakes were jammed into the ground near the wall, and guard towers were erected every 80 feet. He only was able to turn the conflict when he commandeered a shield from a soldier and personally rallied his legions, forming a large defensive square to protect his wounded and calling for reinforcements. “The contest [was] long and vigorously carried on,” Caesar wrote in his Commentaries on the Gallic Wars. The outcome of the bitter civil war that began with Caesar’s January 49 B.C. As Caesar had foreseen, when the lines collided Pompey loosed his 7,000 cavalrymen at the end of the Roman line. CAESAR'S COMMENTARIES OF THE CIVIL WAR. He warned the Helvetii that any attempt to cross the river would be opposed. Caesar had the support of the people and Pompey had the support of the aristocrats. On August 9, 48 B.C., nearly four years after Caesar won Gaul with his victory at Alesia, he stood surveying Pompey’s much larger army at Pharsalus in Roman-ruled central Greece. HistoryNet.com contains daily features, photo galleries and over 5,000 articles originally published in our various magazines. The Battle of Pharsalus was the decisive battle of Caesar's Civil War.On 9 August 48 BC at Pharsalus in central Greece, Gaius Julius Caesar and his allies formed up opposite the army of the republic under the command of Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus ("Pompey the Great"). He also fomented an outbreak of tribes along the Mediterranean, forcing Caesar to turn his attention to the south. From that single source, Damon traced 1,000 disagreements across hundreds of medieval manuscripts of the Civil War and reconstructed a single version of the text.4 As a result, we now have a new Latin version of the Caesar’s work where the number of spots of lost or uncertain text is down to a few dozen.5 And with that, Damon has produced a fresh English translation, the first based on this new Latin version. became a Roman consul, the city’s highest elected official. Caesar’s next campaign, however, was against his fellow Romans. In September 52 B.C., Caesar arrived at Alesia and laid siege to a combined Gallic force that may have numbered 80,000 warriors, four times greater than Caesar’s force. Interesting. Through a game of medieval telephone, there are a number of things that can change in copied text. In his Commentaries, he remarked, “No single traveler had ever crossed [these mountains] in winter.”. Less than a third survived to make their return. II.1- 2 … To help their plans, they made alliances with the Sequani, the Aedui (Roman clients) and two other Gallic tribes. When he reached the river, three-fourths of the Helvetii force had already crossed. Yet Vercingetorix also suffered serious losses and after losing another minor engagement to Caesar was forced to seek refuge in the hilltop city of Alesia (near modern-day Dijon, France). Eddie "The Eagle" Edwards, first to represent Great Britain in Olympic ski jumping. When he reached the town of Geneva, near the planned route of the Helvetii, he began destruction of a bridge over the Rhone River in territory belonging to a Roman client tribe, the Allobroges. Alexandrian War; African War; Spanish War Caesar chose to stop and fight at a hill near a Gallic oppidum (fortified city) at Bibracte. Book 2--- 49 B.C. Caesar, Julius; Peskett ... Rome -- History Civil War, 49-45 B.C Publisher London Heinemann Collection robarts; toronto Digitizing sponsor Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Contributor Robarts - University of Toronto Language English. Pompey’s 50,000-man army greatly outnumbered Caesar’s 20,000 soldiers; yet Caesar’s troops were seasoned veterans of the years-long,  hard-fought campaigns that had conquered Gaul (modern-day France) and greatly expanded Roman-ruled territory. Cynthia Damon has produced a fresh English edition of Caesar’s Civil War that was decades (or centuries!) For several days, Julius Caesar had watched the army of his fellow Roman but bitter enemy Pompey (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) forming near Pharsalus in the central region of Roman-ruled Greece. However, a larger and more serious uprising erupted in 52 B.C. Historians have praised Caesar for his innovative military tactics, his use of skilled military engineers and his natural gifts as a military leader. Lyons resides in Rochester, N.Y., with his wife, Brenda, and a beagle named Gus. Originally published in the July 2013 issue of Armchair General. Pompey’s two sons, Gnaeus and Sextus, and their supporters tried to continue the civil war, but the effort was futile. He stationed himself at the hill’s summit with two other legions, his auxiliaries and his baggage train. Martin Van Buren, 8th president in the United States--and the first born in the United States. Pompey gathered his family, loaded as much gold as he could, threw off his general’s cloak and fled. Adopted by Caesar, Augustus (c.62 BC – 14 AD / Reigned 31 BC – 14 AD) had to fight for his throne. He used part of his growing wealth from Gallic loot to hire political agents in Rome. Walt Disney, animator and creator of an entertainment empire. At Pharsalus, however, Caesar’s soldiers confronted other disciplined Roman legionaries in a battle certain to decide the outcome of a brutal civil war. The Romans pursued Vercingetorix and captured Avaricum (modern Bourges, in central France), the capital city of the allied Bituriges, killing the entire population. The Hunt for Julius Caesar’s Assassins Marked the Last Days of the Roman Republic A new page-turning history details the events that led to the deaths of many of the conspirators Caesar spent the next few years “mopping up” remnants of the Pompeian faction and then returned to Rome and was reaffirmed as Rome’s dictator. 1:0 Vossius's supplement to the first book: I will now say nothing concerning the absurd opinion of those who assert that the following Commentaries on the Civil War were not written by Caesar himself. Book 3--- 48-47 B.C. Caesar had absolute authority within these two Gallic provinces, and the Senate entrusted him with four legions to enforce his authority. According to figures claimed at the time, when the day was over 15,000 of Pompey’s men were killed and another 20,000 were captured, while Caesar lost only 200 men. Surviving that near defeat, Caesar marched inland and at Pharsalus again met Pompey and his army. crossing of the Rubicon River with his XIII Legion in defiance of the Pompey-led Senate’s order would be decided by this day’s battle. Due to his many wounded and the need to bury his dead, Caesar had to wait three days before he could pursue the fleeing Helvetii, but he finally caught them. Again the Gauls were beaten back. Caesar, The Civil War, 1–32 Translated by John Carter (2016). Book 5--- 54 B.C. covered by Books 1–8 of The Landmark Julius Caesar, the civil war of 49 and 48 by Books 9–11, wars in Egypt, Anatolia and other parts of the Roman empire in 47 by Book 12 (Alexandrian War), the second round of the civil wars in 46 by Book 13 (African War), and the last round of the civil wars in 45 by Book 14 (Spanish War). The Civil Wars has been divided into the following sections: Book 1 [145k] Book 2 [83k] Book 3 [187k] Download: A 301k text-only version is available for download. His work has appeared in numerous national and international periodicals. The tactical advantages seemed greatly in Pompey’s favor. All rights reserved. His legionaries first threw their iron-pointed, long-shanked pila (javelins), which stuck firmly in the Helvetii warriors’ wooden shields, weighing them down (the pila could not be easily removed since their thin shanks usually bent upon impact). triumph celebration – and then executed by strangulation. Later Campaigns - Not written by Caesar. Vercingetorix, a young nobleman, raised an army, made alliances with several other tribes and seized control of what was developing as an all-out revolt against Roman authority. Most of 53 B.C. One historian wrote: “Caesar, next to Alexander, was the outstanding director of siege operations of the ancient world.” Caesar proved that claim at the siege of Alesia. The Aedui, a tribe Caesar had saved from Germanic deprecation, had turned against him, joining the revolt and capturing his supplies and Roman base at Soissons. The siege of Alesia, which Caesar recounted in his Commentaries, is considered one of his greatest military achievements as well as being a classic example of successful siege warfare. Caesar's Civil War (Part 2) - Battle of Pharsalus - YouTube Morgan J. Freeman, film director; his Hurricane Streets (1997) was the first narrative film to win three awards at the Sundance Film Festival; produced MTV reality shows (16 and Pregnant, Teen Mom). James Cleveland, considered the "King of Gospel.". Although several brief cavalry engagements had been fought, the mass of the two armies had only stood and glared at one another. Julius Caesar - Julius Caesar - Antecedents and outcome of the civil war of 49–45 bce: During his conquest of Gaul, Caesar had been equally busy in preserving and improving his position at home. Caesar, who throughout his military career relied heavily on his engineers, then began fortifying his position behind the river with a 16-foot-high rampart and a parallel trench lined with ballistae (large missile weapons). This forced the Romans to divide their already outnumbered force to fight the Helvetii to their front and the enemy reserves to their side. 58–50 B.C.E. Moreover, the Germanic tribes likely would move into the abandoned Helvetii homeland, posing another threat to Roman interests. While this happened, the Boii and Tulingi, Helvetii allies who had been held in reserve, joined the battle by hitting Caesar’s right flank. A military leader of legendary genius, Caesar was also a great writer, recording the events of his life with incomparable immediacy and power. The X’s men, rather than hurl their pila at the cavalry attack and then chop at the horses’ legs with their gladii (the traditional Roman defense against a cavalry attack), stabbed at the faces and eyes of the horsemen with their pila as Caesar had drilled them to do. The Civil War is well documented by the standards of ancient conflicts, but there remain many gaps in our knowledge. Approximately 10 miles of 12-foot-high palisades were built in about three weeks. c. iulius caesar (100 – 44 b.c.) “In all of life,” Caesar wrote, “but especially in war, the greatest power belongs to fortune.”. He withdrew from Britain but returned in 54 B.C. Years later, Cicero, himself a famous orator, asked: “Do you know any man who, even if he has concentrated on the art of oratory to the exclusion of all else, can speak better than Caesar?”. He sent his cavalry to delay the enemy and placed four legions in the traditional Roman three-line formation partway up the hill. He pursued Pompey and was almost conquered in July 48 B.C. View 2_162939_Caesar_the_Civil_War_8517963156477394 (1).pdf from ENG 432 at Harvard University. Finally on August 2, Caesar has cut off the enemy from water, fuel, and food, and they surrender. Many of the leaders were jealous of Caesar and his following. Rome is in turmoil. Book 4--- 55 B.C. The next day he presented his arms to Caesar, ending the siege in a Roman victory. Caesar followed this victory with a series of punitive raids against tribes along the Atlantic seaboard that had assembled an anti-Roman confederacy, and he fought a combined land-sea campaign against the Veneti. Copyright © 2020 Scott Manning. The day’s fighting was over. In the morning, Vercingetorix sent a diversionary attack against the wall to the south and then struck the Roman weak spot with men he had hidden there and remnants of the relief force. They surrendered and begged for mercy. The Romans rightly feared that the Helvetii would pillage other tribes as they migrated, and that once settled in southwest Gaul they would pose a threat to Roman territory. After the battle, 180 stands of colors and nine eagle standards were brought to Caesar as trophies of his victory. The outcome of the bitter civil war that began with Caesar’s January 49 B.C. was spent in a punitive campaign against the Eburones and their allies, who were said to have been all but exterminated by the Romans. Intervention by the family of Caesar’s mother and Rome’s Vestal Virgins lifted the threat against Caesar; but it was not until he heard of Sulla’s death in 78 B.C. Caesar would prove the value of a dog's role in war several times over the course of his service in World War II. Commentarii de Bello Civili (Commentaries on the Civil War), or Bellum Civile, is an account written by Julius Caesar of his war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Roman Senate. Chuck Lyons is a retired newspaper editor and a freelance writer who has written extensively on historical subjects. Caesar sent away his horse – a signal to his troops that he would stand with them. Finally, Caesar’s legions were able to collapse the Helvetii defense, with some of the tribesmen escaping to the north and others making a last stand at the Helvetii baggage train, which was soon overwhelmed. Caesar then ordered the construction of a second line of fortifications facing outward (contravallation), enclosing his army between it and the inner set of fortifications. They were moving to escape harassment by Germanic tribes and to seek plunder of their own, something that was missing in their mountainous homeland. Fritz Lang, film director (Metropolis, M). Book 6--- 53 B.C. He routed those remaining on his side of the Arar, killing many of them and driving the rest into the woods. Book 1 - (50 B.C.) Caesar later served as questor (a treasury and legal official) in the Roman province of Hispania Ulterior (Further Spain), where he led military expeditions against the native tribes and in 59 B.C. When the Helvetii saw their allies attack, they returned to the battle. Following his year as consul, Caesar engineered his appointment as proconsul of Cisalpine Gaul (the region between the Alps, the Apennines and the Adriatic Sea) and Transalpine Gaul (present-day Switzerland and Alpine France). Caesar also knew, as all great generals know, “if fortune doesn’t go your way, sometimes you have to bend it to your will.” And bend it he did. Unopposed, Caesar marched triumphantly into Rome, where he was declared dictator; but he had still to defeat the optimate force. Like most ancient texts, we do not have a pristine copy of Caesar's Civil War handed down to us from antiquity. In what would become his trademark, Caesar spared the Helvetii survivors and ordered them to return to their original homeland. Bibracte was the first great battle of Caesar’s military career. Civil Wars. The late Virginia Brown went through the herculean task of reviewing, dating, and documenting all known manuscripts of the Civil War. Book II Siege and surrender of Massilia. Medievalism, Classical Reception, Battlefields, and Cigars. Caesar’s use of projectile weapons (such as ballistae) along with archers and peltasts enabled him to turn the battle in his favor. The Civil War is a tense and gripping depiction of his struggle with Pompey over the leadership of Republican Rome – a conflict that spanned the entire Roman world, from Gaul and Spain to Asia and Africa. At the head of these five legions, he passed through the Alps, crossing the territories of several hostile tribes and fighting some skirmishes en route. He then took 13 cavalry cohorts (about 6,000 men) to attack the relief army, forcing it to retreat. But have you red it and has there been any improvements/interesting things you noticed compared to prior translations? The identities of the latter are unknown, but all appear to … However, the campaign nearly ended in disaster when bad weather wrecked much of his fleet and the sight of massed British chariots caused confusion among his men. George Armstrong Custer, Union cavalry leader who met his fate at the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Caesar’s cavalry and the six cohorts that made up his hidden fourth line then rushed forward to outflank Pompey’s left and worked their way behind his lines to attack from the rear.

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